Volume II: Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire-North-of-the-Sands

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Current Display: Addingham 02a-b, Cumberland Forward button Back button

Overview
National Grid Reference of Place of Discovery
Present Location
Church porch, inside
Evidence for Discovery
First recorded at west end of church in 1840, but possibly originally from same submerged church (NY 565395) as nos. 3–5 (see Jefferson 1840, 324; Collingwood 1913b, 166; Gordon 1914)
Church Dedication
St Michael
Present Condition
Worn and reused
Description

The two portions of the shaft do not join, so that a section in between is lost. The shaft is of the shouldered variety (G.I., fig. 1d). The shaft has been neatly sawn into two pieces after an intermediate use as a medieval gravestone (see a, face C).

a (upper): The broad faces are worn and the edge mouldings have been chipped away.

A (broad): Two complete paired registers and parts of two others of surrounded, joined, complete pattern C, turned. The unit measure is 7 cm and the hole-points are deeply cut and angular in shape.

B (narrow): Part of an outer portion of roll moulding survives on the left, the right edge and part of the face is chipped away. Five volutes of a simple scroll, each volute terminating in a small bunch of three berries. A pair of triangular leaves, with thick stems, hangs from the volutes; they have deeply incised centres, and springing from each node is a pair of similar leaves.

C (broad): This face has been recut for use as a medieval gravestone. Faint traces of a sword and floriated cross are still visible. (narrow): Four volutes of a spiral scroll which terminate in rosette shaped berry bunches. The spaces between the volutes are filled by pendent pairs of triangular leaves, of the same types as on B, and similar pairs which spring from the ridged nodes.

b (lower):

A (broad): In the narrower section above the shoulder, one complete register of surrounded, joined, complete pattern C, turned, and a terminal register composed simply of another pair of pattern C loops (G.I., fig. 18b). Below are traces of a bush scroll. The volutes terminate in a three element group of leaves or buds. The central stem terminates in a stiff plume.

B (narrow): On the narrower section of the shaft there are two volutes of a simple scroll, of the same type as above. It springs from a V-shaped projection on the left and a composite leaf-bud with back turned leaves fills the space on the right. Below the shoulder there is a panel of interlace, which could be half pattern F, terminating in a two-strand twist and a simple pattern E knot, or a pair of opposed simple pattern E knots separated by a two-strand twist.

C (broad): Defaced as C above.

D (narrow): On the narrower section, two complete volutes of a spiral scroll springing from a small cup. On the right of the base is a composite leaf-bud. Below is a panel of simple pattern F with a bar terminal at the top. The strands are median-incised.

Discussion

Shouldered shafts such as this seem to be a late Anglian development, as at Nunnykirk, Northumberland (Cramp 1984, pls. 208–9), or Otley, Yorkshire (Collingwood 1927a, fig. 60). The bush scroll on face A is a favoured type in Cumbria, (see Introduction, p. 15), whilst the spiral scroll with paired drop leaves is ultimately derived from Hexham, Northumberland (Cramp 1984, pls. 173; 175), although later developments can be found in the same county at Stamfordham (ibid., pl. 219, 1245) and in the north-west at Heversham (no. 1) and Lancaster (Ill. 679).

The interlace on the base – half pattern F – is also found at Irton (no. 1) and Waberthwaite (no. 1), and, as late as the Viking period, on Penrith 2. However, elsewhere in England this is a popular interlace type throughout the tenth century. The interlace patterns on face A are not otherwise paralleled in the west, although they are found in Yorkshire at Kirby Moorside, Kirkby Misperton, and Stonegrave (Adcock 1974, i, 120–9, ii, fig. 26). Altogether, both in form and ornament, this shaft fits into a period in Northumbrian sculpture which is late in the pre-Viking epoch.

Date
First half of ninth century
References
Jefferson 1840, 324; Calverley 1899a, 4; Collingwood 1901a, 257, fig, p. 255; Collingwood 1902a, 273; Collingwood 1913b, 164–5, fig. on 165; Brøndsted 1920, 182; Collingwood 1923c, 222; Brøndsted 1924, 64; Collingwood 1927a, 111, fig. 133 (bis ); Pevsner 1967, 127; Adcock 1974, i, 229–31, fig. 36d, ii, pls. 98–9; Bailey 1974a, i, 20, 32, 229–31, ii, 6–7, pls.; Cramp 1984, 215

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